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Volume: I, Issue: I, July - December 2010


VĀRĀṆASĪ IN THE GĀHAḌAVĀLA PERIOD







Abstract

The Decline and disappearance of the Gurjara-Pratīhāra empire in circa CE 1030 ushered in an era of political disintegration and anarchy in Northern India. The erstwhile feudatories asserted their independence. Antarvedī was disturbed by the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni and North Indian political powers were busy with their local conflicts. There was a political vacuum giving an open invitation for showing bravery to any ambitious power in the region. In this disturbed condition the Gāhaḍavāla dynasty was established by Candradeva in about CE 1089 which ended the political uncertainty that prevailed in the Middle Gangā Valley and the dynasty under the able rule of his successors Madanapāla,Govindacandra,Vijayacandra and Jayaccandra continued to rule over the region till the Muslim conquest in CE 1193. The history of this dynasty is known to us principally through their inscriptions numbering 117, if we set aside the brief mention of them in the contemporary and near-contemporary literary works. They were in the possession of Kānyakubja and Vārāṇasī and it is generally believed that the former was their capital, though their inscriptions show that they had closer and long continued association with Vārāṇasī. In the ensuing paper it is proposed to discuss the condition of Vārāṇasī in the time of the Gāhaḍavālas.



Keywords Content

Importance and Nomenclature

Situated at the crescent shaped left bank of the Gangā, Vārāṇasī is one of the holiest cities of Hindus. It represents great and unbroken traditions of religious sanctity and learning. In several Purāṇas1 Kāśī or Vārāṇasī has been lauded and described at great length. Buddha on many occasions visited Vārāṇasī and delivered several sermons there.2 Supārśvanātha and Pārśvanātha,the seventh and the twenty third Tīrthankaras of Jainas, were born there.3 It was the capital of the Kāśī Mahājanapada in th sixth century BCE. But as this kingdom had a short independent existence its name, Kāśī, soon came to be transferred to its capital city.4 From the references in the Mahābhārata5 and the Mahābhāṣya,6 it appears that Kāśī had become the name of the city and also the name of the region. From the Kamaulī plates of V.S. 1231/CE 1179,7 it appears that Kāśī denoted to Vārāṇasī during the Gāhaḍavāla period. The name Vārāṇasī is derived in the Purāṇas from the names of the streams Varaṇā and Asi.8 which are respectively the northern and southern boundaries of the modern city. This popular derivation of Vārāṇasī is probably an artificial etymology and an after thought. The Asi of doubtful antiquity is too small a stream to have been deemed so significant in ancient period, it is the śuṣka ( dried up) stream mentioned in the Linga Purāṇa quoted by Bhaṭṭa Lakṣmīdhara 9 who was the sāndhivigrahika( minister of peace and war) under king Govindacandra. "It is clear from archaeological excavations and from old descriptions of the city that ancient Vārāṇasī was situated primarily in the north, on the high Rājghāṭ plateau where the river Varaṇā meets the Gangā. The city may have been built on both sides of the Varaṇā river; it certainly did not stretch along the Gangā to the south as it does today".10 Instead of geographic, the name is of economic significance, a fact ignored by all scholars while discussing the nomenclature of the city. The term Vārāṇasī is made of the word anas with the prefix vara and the suffix ñīpa, and means a place where good quality carts were manufactured. In ancient times Vārāṇasī was not only a city of some size, but it was also a significant trading and commercial centre. Its wealth is famous in the Jātakas; the Buddha-to-be, called a Bodhisatva, is said to have been born as a rich merchant in Vārāṇasī, going about his commercial ventures with some 500 carts full of goods.11 The Mahābhāṣya12 states that Vārāṇasī was called Jitvarī by the businessmen, for they reaped great profits there. In ancient texts several other names are attributed to the city like Mahāśmaśāna, Ānandakānana, Rudrāvāsa, Avimukta-kṣetra, etc.13


Gāhaḍavāla Period

After a long gap of more than 1500 years Vārāṇasī regained its imperial status under the Gāhaḍavālas in the twelfth century CE. The evidence of their copper-plate grants, numbering fifty four issued from Vārāṇasī, tends to show that the principal seat of residence of the Gāhaḍavāla kings was at Vārāṇasī.14 The Singara Vatsarāja, a feudatory chief of the Gāhaḍavālas, also issued a landgrant, dated V.S. 1191/CE 1134, after having a bath in the Gangā at Vārāṇasī.15 The inscriptions of the dynasty refer to some shrines and ghaṭṭas of Vārāṇasī. The reference to god Ādi-Keśava and Ādikeśava- ghaṭṭa at the sin destroying confluence of the rivers Varaṇā and Gangā in seven landgrants16 indicates that it was held in very high esteem during the twelfth century CE. The Candrāvatī copper-plate inscription of V.S.1150/ CE1093 records that king Candradeva adorned the image of Viṣṇu-Hari by gold ornaments set with jewels and set up an image of Ādi-Keśava at Vārāṇasī and adorned it also with gold and jewels.17 Another Candrāvatī copper-plate inscription of V.S.1156/ CE 1100 informs that the same king granted 32 villages to the 500 Vedic brāhmaṇas after a munificent gift of gold and other valuables equal to the king’s weight( tulāpuruṣa-mahādāna) and a thousand kine ( gosahasra-mahādāna) before the image of the god Ādi-Keśava at the confluence of the rivers Varaṇā and Gangā in Vārāṇasī.18 Ādi-Keśava is an ancient temple site. The god is mentioned in the oldest Purāṇic listings of sub-tīrthas of Vārāṇasī wherein He is simply called Keśava.19 His shrine retained its importance even during the eleventh-twelfth centuries when king Candradeva either fully renovated or built a new shrine and installed a new image of Keśava( i.e.Viṣṇu ) therein. It was a favourite site of religious performances of the Gāhaḍavāla kings and queens, Madanapāla’s wife Pṛthvīśrīkā,Govindacandra,Vijayacandra and Jayaccandra also made landgrants after bathing at the Ādikeśava-ghaṭṭa; Jayaccandra as a crown prince( yuvarāja) was initiated in the worship of the god Kṛṣṇa by the royal-priest Praharājaśarman in the presence of the god Ādi-Keśava.20 It was perched on the high position of the Rājghāṭ plateau, overlooking the confluence of the Gangā and Varaṇā rivers. Since the ancient city was centred on this plateau,it was naturally one of the temples demolished by the Muslim army of Shihab-ud-din Ghuri when they stormed Vārāṇasī after the defeat and death of king Jayaccandra in CE 1193. There is a temple dedicated to Ādi-Keśava perched right at the confluence of the river Varaṇā with the Gangā on the Rājghāṭ plateau today; it was erected by Mānojī, the Dīwān of the Scindia estate of Gwalior during CE 1806-12.21


Roma Niyogi22 has erroneously located the shrine of Viṣṇu-Hari of the Candrāvatī plale of V.S.1150 at Vārāṇasī. Of the numerous Purāṇic māhātmyas of Kāśī available to us,none refers to any shrine of Viṣṇu-Hari there. As the king is shown in this copper-plate grant making the donations after bathing in the river Sarayū at Ayodhyā and the shrine of Viṣṇu-Hari is referred to have been sited in Ayodhyā in the Ayodhyā-māhātmya of the Skanda Purāṇa,23 the inevitable conclusion is that the liberal donation to the image of Viṣṇu-Hari by king Candradeva was received by that god of Ayodhyā alone. It is also significant to note that shrines dedicated to Viṣṇu with the suffix ‘ hari’ ( Dharma-Hari, Cakra-Hari, Gupta-Hari,Viṣṇu-Hari,etc.) are known only in the context of Ayodhyā and no other sacred place in India. The stone inscription of Āyuṣyacandra, recovered from the debris of the demolished controversial structure on December 06,1992 at Ayodhyā, supplies the important information that Anayacandra, the son of Alhaṇa’s brother Megha, who obtained overlordship of Sāketa-maṇḍala through the grace of king Govindacandra, built a beautiful lofty temple with rows of large sculpted stones ( śilā-samhati-vyuhaiḥ ) for the god Viṣṇu-Hari, adorned with a golden spire ( hiraṇya-kalaśa-śrī-sundaram ), which was unparalleled by any other temple built by earlier kings ( purvvairapy-akṛtam nṛpatibhir ).24


The Gāhaḍavāla inscriptions also show acquaintance with the shrines of Aghoreśvara,25 Pañcomkāra,26 Indramādhava,27 Lauḍeśvara,28 Kṛttivāsa29 and Lolārkka,30 and refer to Trilocana-ghaṭṭa,31 Kapālamocana-ghaṭṭa,32 Vedeśvara-ghaṭṭa33 and Koṭitīrtha.34 The Vaiṣṇava shrine of Indramādhava and the Śaiva shrine of Lauḍeśvara are neither referred to in the Purāṇic māhātmyas nor are traceable today in the landscape of Vārāṇasī city. Koṭitīrtha, mentioned in the Skanda Purāṇa35 and the Kṛtyakalpataru,36 was to the south of Śaileśvara and north-west of Mahāśmaśāna pillar (stambha). No water body and shrine of this name exists today. Aghoreśvara was to the north-east of Omkāreśvara,37 but it has disappeared today. Vedeśvara-ghaṭṭa was to the south of Ādi-keśava,38 but it is also non-existent today. Pañcomkāra is the Purāṇic Omkāreśvara where Lord Śiva himself, having a five-fold form, delighted in granting liberation to creatures. Since the five gods, Brahmā and others, always dwelt here, this linga was called five-fold.39 It stood on the north bank of the lake called Matsyodarī-tīrtha.40 Today Matsyodarī is only a small park and the pond called Macchodarī was drained in 1820s. Omkāra has today all but disappeared; it now sits on an elevated site in the Adamapurā quarter of the city, a predominantly Muslim neighborhood, which few Hindus visit. The draining in the nineteenth century of the Matsyodarī-tīrtha on which Omkāra stood has also contributed its decline. Kṛttivāsa, one of the most famous lingas of Vārāṇasī,41 was located to the north of Kāla Bhairava and to the south of Vṛddhakāla. Its site is today occupied by a run-down mosque built in the reign of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb( CE 1656-1707), which opens to Hindus only on Śivarātri day, in the Dārānagar locality. Lolārkka is the most famous of Kāśī’s Sun shrines. It is named in some of the Purāṇic māhātmyas of the city.42 It is located in the southern part of Vārāṇasī, near the Asi-Gangā-sangama in the Bhadainī locality. So great is the importance of Lolārkka that the Asi-sangama is sometimes called the Lolārkka-sangama in the Purāṇic māhātmyas.43 Historical witness to the fame of Lolārkka are two copper-plate inscriptions which record the patronage of the Gāhaḍavāla kings. The Bangavān grant of V.S. 1208/ CE 1150 states that Gosalladevī,one of the queens of king Govindracandra, granted the village of Gaṭiara in the Bhīmamayūtā pattalā in the presence of the god Lolārkka after taking a bath near the shrine of that god in the Gangā.44 King Jayaccandra donated half of the village of Māṭāpura in the Kacchoha pattalā to the god Lolārkka and the other half of it to eleven brāhmaṇas in V.S.1233/ CE 1177.45 The name Lolārkka refers today both to the image of the Sun and to the deep kuṇḍa (stepped- well ) in which that image is located in the Bhadainī locality of the city. Trilocana-ghaṭṭa is on the Gangā, to the south from Macchodarī; a temple dedicated to god Trilocana, mentioned in the Purāṇas,46 stood there. Kapālamocana-ghaṭṭa was at the confluence of the Matsyodarī lake and the backward flowing Gangā during rainy season.47 Kapālamocana tank is today about 1.5 km to the north of Macchodarī; in ancient times it was but a very short distance north of Omkāra. Now a ghāṭ(= ghaṭṭa ) and a tank near the Rājghāṭ station is known by that name. There exists a shrine near the tank dedicated to Kapālamocaneśvara. A.S. Altekar points out that "scores of landgrants, made by the Gāhaḍavāla princes in the presence of different gods of Banāras have been discovered so far, but curiously enough only one is seen being made in the presence and after the worship of Viśvanātha”.48 He has cited Epigraphia Indica, vol. VII, p.159 in support of his statement. Moticandra and K. N. Sukul state that king Govindacandra did actually worship Viśveśvara as is proved by one of his extant copper-plates,49 and cite the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. XXXI, p. 123 in their support. Diana Eck, possibly relying on Sukul, observes that "by the twelfth century Viśveśvara attracted the worship of king Govindacandra, for he left an inscription to say so".50 In the JASB, vol. XXXI, pp. 123-124 is published a grant of king Govindacandra, dated V.S. 1177/CE 1120, which refers to the grant of villages Karaṇḍagrāma and Karaṇḍatalla in the Antarāla pattalā to the brāhmaṇa Vasiṣṭhaśarman, it was made by taking water in hands possibly in the court and not in the presence of any deity. The Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, p.159 contains no Gāhaḍavāla inscription; on its pp. 98-100 is published the Lār grant of V.S. 1202/CE 1146 which was made after a bath in the Gangā from Mudgagiri (Monghyr in Bihar). In fact, no Gāhaḍavāla inscriptions refer to Viśveśvara or Avimukteśvara . Viśveśvara is mentioned twice by Bhaṭṭa Lakṣmīdhara in his Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa of the Kṛtyakalpataru, but “the reference on page 27 is merely to Śiva or Avimukteśvara as lord of the universe, and the second reference on page 93 is to one of 220 lingas of Vārāṇasī whose darśana confers a lower benefit than mukti.”51


In the Pālī plates of V.S.1189/ CE 1133 king Govindacandra is recorded to have made a landgrant after bathing in the river Satī at the ghaṭṭa of the god Svapneśvara.52 Moticandra has identified the Svapneśvara-ghaṭṭa with a ghāṭ of the same name near Kedārghāṭ on the Gangā in Vārāṇasī.53 He seems to have held that here the Satī signifies the river Gangā. But it is the river Saī which rises in the Hardoi district and after separating Lucknow and Unnao it traverses Rae Bareilly and Pratāpgarh districts. Ultimately it passes through the Jaunpur district and falls into the river Gomatī at the village of Rājāpur,the confluence being the scene of a large annual bathing fair. The bathing ghāṭ of the god Svapneśvara on the river Saī has not yet been traced out. Moreover, this deity is unknown to the Purāṇic māhātmyas of and nibandhas on Vārāṇasī. However, Kedāramaṭha, apparently a monastery attached to the Śaiva temple of Kedāreśvara, referred to in the Ukti-vyakti Prakaraṇa54 of Paṇḍita Dāmodara,was an important educational institution in the Gāhaḍavāla period. In the Kāśīkhaṇḍa of the Skanda Purāṇa,a text of the thirteenth century, Kedāreśvara has a full chapter( 77 ) of praises. The Kāśī Kedāra Māhātmya,a text of the sixteenth-seventeenth century, is devoted to its praises alone.


In the Gāhaḍavāla inscriptions Avimukta-kṣetra55 and Vijaya Vārāṇasī56 have been mentioned. The name Avimukta-kṣetra, although used to refer to the sacred city in general, also seems to have had specific geographical reference to a zone some what smaller than Vārāṇasī. The Purāṇas describe it as measuring two hundred bow-lengths from Viśveśvara;57 it was bounded on the east by Maṇikarṇikā, on the south by Brahmeśa, Gokarṇa on the west and Bhārabhūta on the north.58 Four localities of Vārāṇasī  Deva Vārāṇasī where stood the temple of Viśveśvara/Viśvanātha, Rājadhānī Vārāṇasī occupied by Muslims, Madana Vārāṇasī and Vijaya Vārāṇasī  are mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa,59 composed in V.S. 1389/CE 1332 by Jinaprabhasūri. Deva Vārāṇasī evidently denoted to the Avimukta-kṣetra. Moticandra suggests that Rājadhānī Vārāṇasī referred to the Adamapurā and Jaitapurā quarters of the city,60 but it denoted to the centre of the royal capital of the Gāhaḍavālas on the Rājghāṭ plateau which would have included the localities mentioned by Moticandra. He places Madana Vārān̄asī in Zamaniā tehsil of the Ghazipur district and identifies Vijaya Vārāṇasī with Vijayagaṛh in the Mirzapur district.61 But Madana Vārāṇasī seems to be identical with Madanapurā locality of the city. Sagarmal Jain62 places Vijaya Vārāṇasī in Bhelūpurā but Shiva Prasad63 in the Cantonment quarter of the city; it survives in all likelihood in the Vijayīpurā quarter of the Rājghāṭ plateau, nearer to the Gangā where Jayaccandra took bath and granted,on the occasion of performing the ceremony of giving a name to his son Hariścandra, two villages of Sarauḍā and Āmāyī in the Māṇara( Maner in the Patna district of Bihar ) pattalā to mahāpaṇḍita Hṛṣikeśaśarman,son of mahāmiśra-paṇḍita Hāle, of the Śarkkarākṣa gotra in V.S.1232/CE 1175.64


Surapāla, an officer of king Govindacandra, is referred as superintending the digging of a tank named Rājasāgara65 which may be identified with the tank called Rājātalāb on the Pañcakrośī road in Vārāṇasī. A temple built by Dhanapāla, a rich merchant of Vārāṇasī, is also mentioned in the Ukti-vyakti Prakaraṇa.66 Since the reference to the temple immediately follows the digging of the Rājasāgara, we are inclined to suggest its identification with the twelfth century Kardameśvara temple at Kandwā on the Pañcakrośī road,7 km east from Rājātalāb and 5 km west to the Banaras Hindu university.67 The undated Sārnāth stone inscription mentions a notable work of restoration undertaken by Kumāradevī, the Buddhist queen of king Govindacandra, namely the restoration of Dharmacakra-jina originally set up by the Maurya king Aśoka. The same inscription also records the construction of a monastery( vihāra),which enshrined an image of the goddess Vasudhārā, for the Buddhist monks( sthaviras) by the queen.68 The untraceable and never published Aṛhāi Kangūrā Masjid( in Zer Gular quarter to the west of Viśveśvaraganj ) stone inscription, dated V.S.1248/ CE 1190, records the digging of tanks and erection of temples and monasteries( maṭhas) in and about Vārāṇasī.69


King Govindacandra is referred to as establishing brāhmaṇas on the firm footing in Vārāṇasī in the Ukti-vyakti Prakaraṇa70 of Paṇḍita Dāmodara, a fact amply supported by his inscriptions. He is known to have granted a dwelling-house (āvāsa) to the mahattaka Dāyīśarman, son of the ṭhakkura Mahākara and grandson of the ṭhakkura Kāku, a brāhmaṇa of the Bhāradvāja gotra with three pravaras Bharadvāja, Āngirasa and Bārhaspatya. The dwelling house so granted in V.S.1171/ CE 1114 was at Vārāṇasī itself and lay to the east of Aghoreśvara and Pañcomkāra and to the west of the Indramādhava and Lauḍeśvara temples.71 King Jayaccandra gifted away Jayatapura to eleven brāhmaṇas of different gotra for their residence in V.S.1233/ CE 1177,72 which may be identified with the modern Jaitapurā, a predominantly Muslim locality of the city today. The Laṭakamelaka,a farce( sankīrṇa- prahasana ) written by Śankhadhara in the time of king Govindacandra at Vārāṇasī,while introducing the regular visitors to the house of the gaṇikā Madanamañjarī, refers to mahāmahopādhyāya Sabhāsali of Suṇḍivāla-grāma, Digambara Jaṭāsura of Haggaülī, Buddhist monk Vyasanākara of Camarasena-vihāra, śreṣṭhin Ṭhakka of Baḍaülī, Phunkaṭa Miśra of Ḍhunḍhaulī, mahāvaidya( physician) Jantuketu of Haḍivāḍi-grāma, the ascetic Ajñānarāśi of Darihaḍā-grāma, vaṭuka Kulavyādhi who was the chief of Ṭikkaḍa-uvāla-grāma.It also casually mentions Mahājanapura-haṭṭa and the wife of Sabhāsali,who was the daughter of an agni-śrotriya brāhmaṇa of Maccharahaṭṭā-grāma.73 Though it is a very tedious task sometimes even a fruitless effort to find out the locations of all the places of antiquity, most of the places mentioned in the Laṭakamelaka have survived the vagaries of time and are now part and parcel of the city. Maccharahaṭṭā is represented by the modern Macharahaṭṭā and Haḍivāḍi survives in Haṛahā in ward no.48 of the city. Mahājanapura is represented today by Mahājanīṭolā in the Pakkā Mahāl quarter and Haggaülī may be identified with Hālgāon near the birth-place of Tīrthankara Śreyānsanātha in the Pahaṛiā ward no. 7.Ṭikkaḍa-uvāla may reasonably represent modern Ṭakṭakpur village in ward no. 23 and Suṇḍivāla and Baḍaulī possibly survive in Soniā muhalla near Sigrā in ward no.72 and Bauliā near Lahartārā in ward no.1 respectively. The Buddhist monastery named Camarasena-vihāra was obviously located at Sārnāth.The identity of Darihaḍā and Ḍhunḍhaulī are possibly lost in the Muslim quarters in the north of the city.


Conclusion

Almost all the shrines and temples, except Kardameśvara, listed above have disappeared; most of the temples existing and built in the time of the Gāhaḍavālas were destroyed and mosques fashioned out of their material erected during the medieval period. An inscription,74 dated V.S.1353/ CE 1296, cut on two faces of an octagonal pillar in the north cloister of the Lāl Darwājā Masjid at Jaunpur is an evidence indicating that material of the pulled down Padmeśvara temple,which stood on the north side of the gate of Viśveśvara temple at Vārāṇasī, was used in this mosque founded by Bībī Rājī, the queen of Mahmud Shah( CE 1440-1458) of the Sharqui dynasty. There is an urgent need for intensive and extensive surveys in the landscape of Vārāṇasī to identify the surviving vāpīs,kuṇḍas, hradas, sculptures and architectural fragments of the Gāhaḍavāla period. Remarkably some ghāṭs on the Gangā have been named for the first time in the inscriptions of the dynasty, though their number has now crossed the 84 mark. The surviving names of localities are witness to the impact of the Gāhaḍavālas on the city they left. But the city has not yet paid its indebtedness to the Gāhaḍavāla legacy it owes.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Matsya Purāṇa( Mor Pracya Sodha Sansthan,Calcutta, 1954), 180-185; Kūrma Purāṇa( All India Kasiraj Trust, Varanasi,1972) , I.31-35; Linga Purāṇa( Motilal Banarsidass,Delhi, 1980), I.92; Padma Purāṇa( Venkatesvara Steam Press,Bombay, 1927), III. 33-37; Skanda Purāṇa( Venkatesvara steam Press,Bombay, 1909), IV. 1-100.

  2. Anguttara-nikāya( Ed. Bikkhu J.Kashyap,Pali Publication Board, Nalanda, 1960), I. 110ff, III.392ff; Samyutta-nikāya( Ed. Bhikkhu J.kashyap, Pali Publication Board,Nalanda, 1960), I.105, V.406; Vinayapiṭaka( Trs.T.W. Rhys Davids & H.Oldenberg, Motilal Banarsidass,Delhi, 1965, reprint), I.189, 216 ff.  

  3. Kalpasūtra of Bhadrabāhu( Rishabhadeva Kesarimal Jain Pedhi, Ratlam, 1938), pp. 145 ff., 198 ff. 

  4. A. S. Altekar, "History of Benāras", Journal of the B.H.U., 1937, pp. 58-59.  

  5. Mahābhārata( Eds.V.S. Sukthankar et al., BORI, Poona, 1933-59), VI.14.6, XIII.154.23. 

  6. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali( Nirnaya Sagar Press,Bombay, 1959), II.413.  

  7. Epigraphia Indica,vol. IV, p.125, line 20 : kāśyām gangāyām snātvā.  

  8. Kūrma Purāṇa, I.29.62; Padma Purāṇa, I.14.86, III.33.50; Nārada Purāṇa( Venkatesvara Steam Press, Bombay,1933), II.48.19; Skanda Purāṇa, IV.30.69.

  9.  pingalā nāma yā nāḍī āgneyī sā prakīrtitā /śuṣkā saricca sā jñeyã lolārkkoyatra tiṣṭhati //Kṛtyakalpataru,vol.VIII: T̄irthavivecanakāṇḍa of Bhaṭṭa Lakṣmīdhara (Ed. K.V.Rangaswami Aiyangar,Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1942), p.34.

  10. Diana L. Eck, Banaras : City of Light( Routledge & Kegan Paul,London,1983), pp.46-47.  

  11. Jātaka( Ed. V. Fausboll, Luzac & Co. London, 1962-64, reprint) Nos. 1,2,54; Diana L. Eck, op.cit., p.45.  

  12. Mahābhāṣya, II.313. 

  13. D. P. Dubey, "Vārāṇasī : A Name study", Archiv Orientalni, vol. LIII,1985, pp. 347-354.  

  14. Ashish K. Dubey, A Cultural Study of the Gāhaḍavāla Inscriptions, University of Lucknow Ph.D. thesis, 2009, pp.2-19.  

  15. Epigraphia Indica, vol. IV,pp.130-133( Kamaulī plate of V.S.1191/ CE 1134).  

  16. Epigraphia Indica,vol. XIV, pp.197-198, lines 1,16( Candrāvatī grant of V.S.1156/CE 1100): devaśrīmad-ādikeśava-dakṣiṇamūrttau and surasarit-varaṇ-āghamarṣaṇe śrīmad-ādikeśavaghaṭṭe; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1896, p. 787( Bahuvarā grant of V.S.1163/CE 1106); Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,vol. LVI, p.109, line 19( Raiwān grant of V.S. 1187/CE 1130); Indian Antiquary,vol XIV, p. 252, line 16( Ren grant of V.S.1188/CE 1131);Epigraphia Indica,vol. XXVI, p.272, line 21( Rājghāṭ grant of V.S.1197/CE 1140); vol. IV, p.119, line 18( Kamaulī grant of 1224/CE 1168); vol. IV, p.124, line 24( Kamaulī grant of V.S.1230/CE 1173).

  17.  haimāni yena maṇibhiḥ khacitānyanarghair-dattāni viṣṇuharaye ca vibhūṣaṇāni /kāśyāmvyabhūṣayad-aneka-suvarṇaratnair-yaśc-ādikeśavavibhoḥ pratimāmniveśya //                                                                                                                                        D.C.Sircar, “ Some Gāhaḍavāla Grants”, Epigraphia Indica,vol XXXV, p. 203,fn.6, verse 8.

  18. Epigraphia Indica, vol. XIV,pp.197-198, line 1,16.  

  19. Matsya Purāṇa,185.68; Vāmana Purāṇa( All India Kasiraj Trust, Varanasi, 1981),3.43-50; Sakanda Purāṇa,IV.58.28-29 calls it Ādikeśava: ādikeśavanāmnīm tām śrīmūrttim pārameśvarīm.

  20. Epigraphia Indica,vol. IV, p.119, line 19( Kamaulī grant of V.S.1224).  

  21. M.A. Sherring, Banaras: The Sacred City of the Hindus( B.R.Publishing Corporation,Delhi, 1868/1975, reprint), p.185; Kamal Giri et al.,Kāśī ke Mandir aur Mūrtiyān( Jila Samskritik Samiti,Varanasi, n.d.),p.18. 

  22. Roma Niyogi, The History of the Gāhaḍavāla Dynasty( Oriental Book Agency, Calcutta,1959), pp.204,208.  

  23. Skanda Purāṇa, II( viii).1.100.  

  24. K.V.Ramesh, “ Viṣṇu-Hari Temple Inscription”, Purātattva,vol. XXIII, p.100,verse 21.  

  25. Epigraphia Indica, VIII, p. 153, line 19 ( Bhadainī grant of V.S. 1171/ CE 1114).  

  26. Ibid.  

  27. Ibid.  

  28. Ibid.  

  29. Ibid, IV, p. 126, line 22 ( Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1231/ CE 1173).  

  30. Ibid, IV, p. 118, lines 18, 20 ( Bangavān grant of V.S. 1208/CE 1150), p. 129, line 25 ( Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1233/CE 1177).  

  31. Indian Antiquary,vol. XVIII, p. 11, line 12 ( ASB grant of V.S. 1154/CE 1097).  

  32. Epigraphia Indica,vol. IV, p. 110, line 13 ( Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1178/CE 1122) : kapālamocanaghaṭṭe uttaravāhinyām gangāyām  

  33. Purātattva,vol. XXII, p. 118, line 15 ( Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1197/CE 1141) : avimuktakṣetre devaśrī-vedeśvaraghaṭṭe gangāyām------  

  34. Epigraphia Indica,vol. VIII, p. 159, line 15 ( Bhadainī grant of V.S. 1207/CE 1150).  

  35. Skanda Purāṇa, IV. 97.63-64.  

  36. Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa, p. 54.  

  37. Skanda Purāṇa, IV. 97.86-87; Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa, p. 61.  

  38. Skanda Purāṇa, IV.73.155, 97.14-15.  

  39. Kūrma Purana, I. 30.4-5, 8; Skanda Purāṇa, IV. 73.99-100; Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa, pp. 57-58.  

  40. Skanda Purāṇa, IV. 97.79.  

  41. Skanda Purāṇa, IV. 68; Kūrma Purāṇa, I.30. 15-28; Śiva Purāṇa( Venkatesvara Steam Press, Bombay, 1944), I.2.5.5; Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa, pp. 76-78.  

  42. Matsya Purāṇa, 185.69; Vāmana Purāṇa, 3.40; Kūrma Purāṇa, I.33.17; Skanda Purāṇa, IV. 46. 49-56; Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa, pp. 118.  

  43. Skanda Purāṇa, IV.46.53,55: lolārkka-sangame snātvā dānam homam surārcanam and lolārkke rathasaptamyām snātvā gangāsi-sangame.  

  44. Epigraphia Indica,vol. V, pp.116-118.  

  45. Indian Antiquary,vol. XVIII, pp.134-136.  

  46. Skanda Purāṇa, IV.75.64-71.  

  47. Skanda Purāṇa, IV.74.107, 97.66,82; Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa, p.127; Diana L. Eck, op.cit., pp. 117-119. 

  48. A. S. Altekar, op.cit., p. 29. 

  49. Moticandra, Kāśī kā Itihās( Visvavidyalaya Prakasan, Varanasi, 1962/1985, reprint), p. 138; K. N. Sukul, Vārāṇasī Down the Ages( K.N.Sukul Publisher, Patna,1974), p.178. 

  50. Diana L. Eck, op.cit., p.132. 

  51. K.V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍa,, introduction, p. LXXIII.  

  52. Epigraphia Indica,vol.V, pp.113-115. 

  53. Moticandra, op.cit.,p.139.  

  54. Ukti-vyakti Prakaraṇa of Paṇḍita Dāmodara( Ed. Jinavijaya Muni, Singhi Jainasastra Siksapitha, Bombay, 1953), 29/7, 22.  

  55. Purātattva, vol. XXII, p.118, line 15 (Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1197/CE 1141); Epigraphia Indica,vol. IV, p.113, line 18 (Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1198/CE/1141), p.132, line 19 (Kamaulī grant of the Singara Vatsarāja of V.S. 1191/CE 1134).  

  56. Epigraphia Indica,vol. XXXV, p.157, line 22 ( Sūnahar Spurious grant of V.S. 1223/CE 1156); Indian Antiquary,vol. XVIII, p.131, line 24 (Śihvar grant of V.S. 1232/CE 1175), p. 136, line 25 (ASB grant of V.S. 1233/CE 1177); Epigraphia Indica,vol. XXXV, p. 219, line 23 (Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1233/CE 1177), p. 220, line 24 (Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1233/CE 1177), p.218, line 23 (Kamaulī grant of V.S. 1233/CE 1177).  

  57. Tristhalīsetu of Bhaṭṭa Nārāyaṇa ( Ed. Ganesa Sastri Gokhale, Anandasram Press,Poona, 1915), pp. 100-101, Diana L. Eck, op.cit., p. 354.  

  58. Skanda Purāṇa, IV.74.45-46.  

  59. Vividhatīrthakalpa of Jinaprabhasūri( Ed. Jinavijaya Muni, Singhi Jain Jnanapith, Shantiniketan,1934) , p.251. 

  60. Moticandra, op.cit., p.186.  

  61. Ibid. 

  62. Sagarmal Jain, "Jaina Paramparā me Kāśī ", in T. P. Verma et al. (eds.) Vārāṇasī Through the Ages(Bharatiya Itihas Sankalan Samiti,Varanasi, 1986), p. 283. 

  63. Shivaprasad, Jaina Tīrthon kā Aitihāsik Adhyayana( Parsvanatha Vidyasram Sodha Sansthan, Varanasi, 1991) ,p.109.  

  64. Indian Antiquary,vol.XVIII, p.131, lines 24-28( Śihvar grant of V.S.1232/CE 1175).  

  65. Ukti-vyakti Prakaraṇa,21/14-16.  

  66. Ibid.21/ 16-17. 

  67. Ashish K. Dubey, op.cit.,pp. 181, 186-190.  

  68. Epigraphia Indica,vol. IX, pp. 319-328. 

  69. A. Führer, The Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions in the North-western Provinces and Oudh(Indological Book House, Varanasi,1891/1969, reprint), p.207.  

  70. Ukti-vyakti Prakaraṇa, 21/17-18.  

  71. Epigraphia Indica,vol. VIII, pp. 152-153.  

  72. Ibid.,vol. IV, p. 129,lines 25-28.  

  73. Laṭakamelaka of Śankhadhara( Ed.&Tr. Kapiladeva Giri, Chowkhamba Vidya Bhawan, Varanasi, V.S.2019), pp.6-7,12,23. 

  74. P. Prasad, Sanskrit Inscriptions of Delhi Sultanate( Oxford University Press, New Delhi,1990), p.151.