THE SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE RELIGIOUS ESTABLISHMENTS AT SIRPUR IN CHHATISHARH (c. CE 6th - 8th CENTURIES)
Humans transform a geographical space into a meaningful and well known place to others by performing their cultural activities in the place through ages. Dakṣiṇa Kosala is no exception to this. Scholarly studies have made us aware of the historical resources of South Kosala. Taking cue from these, attempts have been made in the present essay to provide indications towards the social linkages of the religious establishments at Sirpur called Śrīpura of South Kosala of the past. Therefore the exercise has been done in the light of epigraphic testimonies as well as archaeological materials recently excavated at Sirpur.
FROM THE KNOWN TO THE UNKNOWN: REAPPRAISING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE OF THE KALI NADI – GANGES INTERFLUVE
The paper discusses the results of a reconnaissance survey carried out in an area between the Kali Nadi and the Ganges rivers, which was aimed at re-visiting previously reported sites and also for locating new sites in the area. Another aim was to ascertain the extent to which archaeological sites have survived in an intensively inhabited zone and the impact of various natural and cultural factors acting upon the sites. The paper briefly discusses the ceramics and other artifacts recovered during the survey as well as about the spatial patterning and distribution of archaeological settlements in the area.
DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN LEADERSHIP AT THE GRASSROOTS IN BANGLADESH: A STUDY OF ITS STRUCTURES, CONTEXTS AND PROCESSES
This paper tries to unravel the research question: what were the structures, contexts and processes that helped develop women leadership in Bangladesh? The paper is based on content analysis method. The findings of the study unraveled that women leadership in a country grows through various socio-economic, political and legal processes, structures and contexts that allowed women playing leadership role. Liberal value system, democratic governance, advancement of education, science, information and communication technologies (ICTs), different socio-political movements, women’s organizations and networking, favorable legislation etc., can provide positive impetus for consolidating women’s leadership. In a real sense, economic factors played pivotal role for emerging women leadership in the grassroots based local government in Bangladesh. It was evident that working in Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) huge number of women achieved economic emancipation and conscientization by involving themselves in various income-generating activities and developed enormous social capital at the grassroots level which buttressed women leadership in Bangladesh.
This essay explores the subjectivity and agency of a woman in Western India who relentlessly fought against patriarchy and the caste system. Not much has been written about her. Savitribai was known only as the wife of Jyotirao Phule or a teacher of female education. However, this article argues that Savitribai took patriarchy head on and fought against child marriage, female infanticide, opened orphanages, worked for widow remarriage and female education. She created her own identity by coming out of shadows of her husband and became a bread winner and carried the mantle handed over by Joytirao Phule after his death. She was far ahead of nationalist discourse on women in 19th Century Colonial India.
Family as a theme of study has been the concern of sociologists for they have dealt with theorizing the definition of family as a social entity. In the light of the debate among scholars on the various kinds of structures of family in India, but particularly taking clue from A. M. Shah’s proposition of ‘patriarchal elementary’ structure of family I discuss how Śiva’s family consisting Pārvatī, Gaṇeśa, Kārttikeya and Śiva do resemble a similar structure, however, cannot be concluded to be so. The family of Śiva represents the aspirations of the society in which it finds expression. The family captures the most preferred kin roles ascribed by the society for its people. The family of Śiva in the Puranic myths allegorically reveals the ideal kin-roles of males (the role of father and husband personified by Śiva, and son personified by Kārttikeya and Gaṇeśa) and females (the role of mother personified by Pārvatī, and wife personified by both Satī and Pārvatī) preferred within the brahmanical tradition during the early medieval India. Thus, the family of Śiva, I state, at best can be regarded as an ideal ‘patriarchal elementary’ family.
Adam Hardy, THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IN MEDIEVAL INDIA – BHOJA’S SAMARĀṄGAṆASŪTRADHĀRA AND THE BHOJPUR LINE DRAWINGS, 2015, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi, & Dev Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, i-xiii 1-295.
Book review by Pushpa Tiwari